Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold
(Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold)
Vitis vinifera L var. tinctoria
(min. 10% polyphenols))
Camellia sinensis Kuntze
(mín. 55% polyphenols, mín. 15% epigallocatechin gallate – EGCG)
Olea europaea L.
(mín. 6% oleuropeína)
Curcuma longa L
(min. 10% curcumin)
Branched Chain Amino Acid
The polygon, Polygonum cuspidatum also known as Reynoutria japonica, is a plant originated in Asia, being distributed through North America and Europe, including Portugal. It is considered an invasive species in many countries. The roots of this plant are also the healthier known source of resveratrol, being used in oriental medicine. The resveratrol was identified in 2003 as being a potent activator of sirtuins. Studies in rats have shown clearly benefits to health, such as the increase of insulin sensitivity, increase of glucose tolerance, decrease of plasma lipids and liver fat, a suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. In men, it was observed a reduction of fat content inside the liver, glycemia, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and inflammation markers.
Vine is a plant from Southern Europe and West Asia, and has been cultivated for thousands of years, by many civilizations, with the purpose of obtaining wine.
It has medicinal properties and has been traditionally used in cardiovascular diseases and has a venous tonic.
Its leaves are rich in polyphenols: tannins, various flavonoids such as campferol, anthocyanidins, quercetin and resveratrol itself. The presence of different types of polyphenols, such as quercetin, increases resveratrol’s bioavailability and synergistically complements its effect, as resveratrol promotes the destruction of fat cells that already exist and quercetin avoids the formation of new fat cells.
The high intake of green tea in Asia has been quoted as the main reason for the “Asian paradox”. Despite a big prevalence of smokers, Asia and especially Japan present one of the lowest rates of cardiovascular diseases in the world. A high intake of green tea is linked to much lower rates of coronary heart diseases.
Dried leaves are very rich in polyphenols, such as chlorogenic, caffeic and gallic acids, as well as campferol, quercetin and myricetin (flavonoids). It also has another type of polyphenols – the epigallocatechin gallate – EGCG (catechin).
Olive tree originates from the Mediterranean region, being highly cultivated in Portugal and other Mediterranean countries, for obtaining olive oil.
In the leaves, among other substances, polyphenol oleuropein can be found, as well as flavonoids such as apigenin, luteolin and rutin. The olive tree has been traditionally used in arterial hypertension. The oleuropein has showed antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity. Besides its direct activity as sirtuins activator, the apigenin and rutin increase the absorption of quercetin (present in green tea), increasing its activity.
The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, in which the olive oil and moderate wine consumption take an important role, may in part be explained by the capacity that polyphenols contained in these foods have of activating sirtuins.
Turmeric, or commonly known as Indian Saffron, is a spice often used in Indian traditional cuisine and has already been used in ayurvedic medicine for over 4000 years for its anti-inflammatory and healing properties.
Today we know that its properties are due to the presence of curcumin, a yellow pigment and at the same time a polyphenol which in recent studies have been showing to improve cholesterol levels, to control blood sugar and to reduce body inflammation. These results are compatible with an activating action of sirtuins.
Leucine is a branched chain amino acid and is an essential amino acid, meaning it is not capable of being synthesized in the human body and has to be obtained through diet. It is essential for growth, it stimulates the synthesis of proteins in muscles, and helps stabilize and lower glycemia by stimulating the release of insulin.
Studies have shown that the simultaneous presence of leucine and resveratrol results in a synergistic effect on sirtuins activation, producing an increase of its activity. In addition, it has been found that such synergy could be obtained not only with resveratrol, but also with other polyphenols such as hydroxycinnamic, cinnamic acids or chlorogenic acid, which is also present in green tea. Other studies have shown that leucine, in a direct way, could be capable of activating sirtuins. The inclusion of leucine in the formula of SIRTActiv is meant for synergistic and potentiation effect of polyphenols.
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